What are zero air voids lines and saturation lines?

Zero air voids lines

A-line, which shows the relation between water content and dry density of compacted soil having a constant percentage of air voids is known as air void lines, which may be represented by as,

Where,

ɳa = Percentage of air voids

             W = water content of compacted soil

              ˠw = unit weight of water

The theoretical maximum compaction of soil for any given water content corresponding to zero-air voids condition i.e. ɳa = 0.

Saturation lines

For a compacted soil the lines showing the relation between the water content and the dry density of the soil for a constant degree of saturation (s%) is known as saturation lines and which may be represented by as,

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